Wednesday, September 4, 2019

Examine The Social Conditions :: essays research papers

The decision to colonise New South Wales in the late 18th century was influence by a number of social and political situations, which developed throughout Britain in the 18th century. The British society was dramatically changing due to the Industrial Revolution, soaring birth rates and higher age of death. The dramatic rise in the birth rate led to a lot of people being unable to find work and in desperation turning to crime. In 1776, Britain lost America as a colony and also a place to send their convicts. British jails were in desperate ruin and ran in appalling condition. They were also overflowing and Britain needed to find a way to accommodate all the prisoners. The Industrial Revolution took place primarily between 1750 – 1850. It was a time of dramatic change in Britain. Due to the increase in national wealth, generated by economic growth the gap between rich and poor was becoming wider. ‘Many wealthy people took the convenient view that this social order had been ordained by God and should not be interfered with.’ People before the Industrial Revolution manufactured goods in their own home, which was gradually phased out by factories. This meant for some a job in a factory under very harsh conditions and for others it meant unemployment, which led to idleness and also poverty. During the Industrial Revolution the general health of people increased. Nothing compared to what we are today but a big change for the British. One thing that helped improve their health was the manufacture of cotton. People started to wear clothes made of cotton. The cotton was lightweight and could be washed unlike the heavy woollen clothes, which were unable to be washed, and were usually full of vermin. The population during this period was increasing dramatically. From 1700 – 1740 the population stayed at around 5.5 million but by 1750 it had soared to 6.5 million. The rising birth rate and an increase in the age of death were very important factors to the 18th century Britain. The lowering of the death rate meant more young people were surviving to have children of their own. The rise in the birth rate contributed largely to the overwhelming crime rate. Britain now had an influx of young people facing unemployment – something in such a large scale, that Britain had never faced before. Crime was often a form of desperation and many of the young faced crime or starvation.

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